WHAT IS DIABETES
According to WHO, Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough—or any—insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells.
Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems. Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy.
Sometimes people call diabetes “a touch of sugar” or “borderline diabetes.” These terms suggest that someone doesn’t really have diabetes or has a less serious case, but every case of diabetes is serious.
TYPES OF DIABETES
There are 3 types of diabetes :
Diabetes Type 1 is characterized by absence of insulin in the body.
Diabetes Type 2 is associated with the body’s inability to effectively use insulin.
The third and majorly referred to as a minor form of Diabetes is Gestational diabetes Mellitus affects expectant mothers, characterized by hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar)
Women with gestational diabetes mellitus are at a greater risk of complications during pregnancy and both mother and child are at greater risk of suffering diabetes type 2 in the future.
FACTS ABOUT DIABETES
Today we take a look at certain facts that can help on in the prevention and management of different forms of diabetes.
.1. The causes and risk factors related to diabetes Type 1 are yet unknown.
2. Diabetes Type 2 is 100 percent preventable. this form of diabetes is caused majorly by modifiable risk factors
3. Diabetes Type 1 is one of the leading causes of death in the world
4. Diabetes Type 2 is the most common and contributes the highest burden.
5. With proper management and care one can still live long with diabetes
6. Early diagnosis, and management can minimize adverse health outcomes.
DIABETES RISK FACTORS
Weight. The more fatty tissue you have, the more resistant your cells become to insulin.
Inactivity. The less active you are, the greater your risk. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses up glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
Family history. Your risk increases if a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.
Race. Although it’s unclear why, people of certain races — including black people, Hispanics, American Indians and Asian-Americans — are at higher risk.
Age. Your risk increases as you get older. This may be because you tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass and gain weight as you age. But type 2 diabetes is also increasing among children, adolescents and younger adults.
Gestational diabetes. If you developed gestational diabetes when you were pregnant, your risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes later increases. If you gave birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4 kilograms), you’re also at risk of type 2 diabetes.
Polycystic ovary syndrome. For women, having polycystic ovary syndrome — a common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity — increases the risk of diabetes.
High blood pressure. Having blood pressure over 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) is linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels. If you have low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or “good,” cholesterol, your risk of type 2 diabetes is higher. Triglycerides are another type of fat carried in the blood. People with high levels of triglycerides have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Your doctor can let you know what your cholesterol and triglyceride levels are.
THE BURDEN OF DIABETES.
More than 400 million adults live with diabetes globally. Causes more than 2 million deaths annually. More than 40% of such deaths occur among individuals of aged below 70 years. More than $ 2 Trillion is spent on diabetes management, treatment and care.
This amount is about 50 times the Kenyan national annual budget. More than 3% of Kenyans live with diabetes while two thirds remain undiagnosed according to the WHO. This number is expected to rise beyond 4% by 2025. As the numbers are expected to rise, more money will be spent in the management of such diseases rather than personal and national development. Kenyans and everyone globally are hence expected to take up preventive measures.
- Cut Sugar and Refined Carbs from Your Diet.
- Work Out Regularly.
- Drink Water as Your Primary Beverage.
- Lose Weight If You’re Overweight or Obese.
- Quit Smoking.
- Follow a Very-Low-Carb Diet.
- Watch Portion Sizes.
- Avoid Sedentary Behaviors. WORKOUT
- Eat a High-Fiber Diet
- Optimize Vitamin D Levels
- Minimize Your Intake of Processed Foods
- consider Taking These Natural Herbs. Some of the recommended herbs are Curcumin and Berberine
TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES
Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus require lifelong insulin therapy. Mostly 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Long-term management requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes physicians, nurses, dietitians, and selected specialists.
Treatment and management of diabetes type 2 requires a multidimensional approach which combines both pharmaceuticals, therapy and personal driven activities. Management includes dietary controls, physical activity and exercise, regular blood sugar monitoring and drug administration. All should be done under the direction of a physician.
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